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The Kyoto Protocol sets binding targets for developed countries and the European Community to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

(The first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol ran between 2008 and 2012. The Kyoto Protocol was extented untill 2020, while its successor is negociated.)

After more than 150 years of industrial activity these countries bear the main responsibility for the current high level of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore they must also make a greater contribution than developing countries. They are listed in Annex 1 of the Kyoto protocol and often called “Annex 1 Parties”..

Annex 1 Parties
These include: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, European Community, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America.

Non-Annex 1 Parties
The remaining candidate countries are: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chile, China, Cook Islands, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cuba, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Jamaica, Jordan,  Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Moldova, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, South Africa, South Korea, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

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