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The Kyoto Protocol was extented untill 2020, while its successor is negociated. The negotiations progress at the annual UN climate conferences. Significant cuts will not be possible without the commitment of all high-emission countries including the United States, who didn’t ratify the Kyoto Protocol.


During George Bush’s administration (2001–2008) the U.S. government’s main complaint was that the Kyoto reduction obligations were not applicable to most of the world, including countries with large populations like China and India. As a result, the U.S. economy would be unfairly burdened if the government were to ratify it.

The European Union has called for the participation of the rapidly growing emerging economies in the next agreement. However, as a matter of fairness, this contribution can’t be the same as that of the industrialized countries. Because industrialized countries cause most of the emissions now and are also responsible for most of the emissions in the past.

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